Publications based on ESO Data

Based on the FAIR principles to make data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable, publications making use of ESO observational data must include the following statement in a footnote or in the acknowledgement:

Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme(s) TP.C-NNNN(R)* or PPP.AAAA.nnn** and/or data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility with DOI(s) under***

Please substitute the place-holder (TP.C-NNNN(R) or PPP.AAAA.nnn) with the programme ID(s) of the data used, e.g., 094.A-1234(A) or 105.20UA.001. You will find the identifier in the FITS header of the observations.

Refereed papers that use partly or exclusively data from ESO facilities are included in the ESO Telescope Bibliography (telbib,, a database curated by the ESO Library and Information Centre.

For more detailed information about ESO’s data access and acknowledgement policy, please see

* all programmes approved before ESO period 105: TP.C-NNNN(R)
T: leading character indicating the programme type (0=Normal, 1=Large, ...)
P: period (2 digits for P<100, 3 digits for P>=100)
C: category (A, B, C , D, L, ...)
NNNN: four digit integer (unique within each semester)
R: run (A, B, ...)

** as of ESO period 105: PPP.AAAA.nnn
P: period
A: unique identifier composed of numbers and letters
n: number of the run

Please consult the information on ESO Programme and Run Identification Codes for further details.

*** for ESO Science Archive DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers), please substitute NNN with the correct number from the doi column in the table at


For data obtained from APEX and ALMA, please also consult the following specific data citation policies: