Messenger No. 49 (September 1987)

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1-1 (PDF)
L. Woltjer
Bengt Strömgren (1908 - 1987).

ADS BibCode:
Woltjer, L.
Bengt Stroemgren, former President of the ESO Council (1975-1977) died on 4 July after abrief illness. His presidency occurred at a particularly difficult moment in ESO's history. Thanks to his wisdom and the self-confident and decisive way in which he dealt with ESO matters, many perils were avoided and a high degree of harmony was established between the delegations of the member countries which has endured up to the present.
2-3 (PDF)
M. Viton, D. Burgarella et al.
CPD -71 deg 172, a new binary with a hot subdwarf

ADS BibCode:
Viton, M.; Burgarella, D.; Cassatella, A.; Prevot, L.
AA(CNRS, Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, Marseille, France), AB(CNRS, Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, Marseille, France), AC(International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory, Madrid, Spain), AD(Marseille, Observatoire, France)
In the region of the Small Magellanic Cloud, photographed with the Very Wide Field Camera flown aboard Spacelab-1 in December 1983, a well-defined star-like object was observed with no other counterpart than a cool star, and was tentatively identified as the CPD -71 deg 172, an FO star with magnitudes M(V) of about 10.5 and m(B) of about 10.9. From these values, the 195 nm magnitude was normally expected to be about 12.3, the value which significantly exceeds the estimaged magnitude of 8. This large excess indicates a possibility of a hot subluminous companion to the cool primary. A first low-resolution UV spectrum obtained by the IUE satellite confirmed the existence in the CPD -71 deg 172 of a very hot subdwarf companion.
Barnes, T.G., Evans, D.S. and Moffet, T.J.:
1978, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 183,285.
Crawford, D. L.: 1975, Astron. J. 80, 955.
FitzGerald, P. M.: 1970, Astron. Astrophys. 4,
Heber, U., Hunger, K., Jonas, G. and Kudritzki,
R. P.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 130,
Heber, U.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 155,33.
Kudritzki, R. P., Hunger, K., Gruschinske, J.
and Simon, K. P.: 1980, Proc. of 2nd
Europ. IUE Cont., ESA SP-157, 307.
Kurucz, R. L.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 40,
Schonberner, D. and Drilling, J. S.: 1984, As~
ophys. J. 278, 702.
3-4 (PDF)
List of ESO Preprints

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3-3 (PDF)
Tentative Time-table of Council Sessions and Committee Meetings in 1987

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4-5 (PDF)
K. Lundgren
Luminous MS stars in the LMC

ADS BibCode:
Lundgren, K.
AA(Astronomiska Observatoriet, Uppsala, Sweden)
The IDS spectra of a sample of Large Macellanic Cloud stars with luminosity range from M(bol) = -9 to M(bol) = -4, were analyzed, with particular attention given to the strengths of the ZrO bands, strongest at 6473 A. By the criteria of Lloyd Evens (1983), slightly stronger 6473-A features than those of more luminous M supergiants should be classified as MS stars. IDS spectra of LMC stars of spectral types M3, with M(bol) = -7; M3S, with M(bol) = -6.3; and S3/3, with M(bol) = 4.8 (the stars which are fairly close in temperature type) were closely examined. The strengths of the ZrO bands in the MS star were found to be above those in the M star and much higher than in the S star. From their position in the color-magnitude diagram, the MS stars are estimated to have masses around 5 solar masses. An analysis of spectra observed with the Reticon on the 1.5-m telescope indicated that a few stars with 6473 features like the luminous MS stars in the LMN are found among the M-type classification standards.
Iben, I.Jr., and Renzini, A.: 1983, Ann. Rev.
Asuon.Asuophys. 21, 271.
Keenan, P. C., and Boeshaar, P. C.: 1980,
Astrophys. J. Suppt. 43, 379.
L1oyd Evans, T.: 1983, Monthty Notices Roy.
Astr. Soc. 204, 975.
Richer, H. B., Olander, N., and Westerlund,
B. E.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 230, 724.
Westerlund, B. E., Olander, N., and Hedin, B.:
1981, Astron. Astrophys. Suppt. 43, 272.
Wood, P. R., Bessell, M. S., and Fox, W.:
1983, Astrophys. J. 272, 99.
5-10 (PDF)
P. Didelon
HD 187474 - The first results of surface magnetic field measurements

ADS BibCode:
Didelon, P.
AA(Strasbourg, Observatoire, France)
During two observations by the CAT instrument in December 1985 and October 1986, ceveral magnetic chemically peculiar stars (CP stars, described by Preston, 1974) were observed at several different wavelengths. This paper presents the first results of surface magnetic field (Hs) measurements on the very slow rotating (rotational period equal to about 7 years) CP star HD 187474 of the Si-Cr-Eu type. The preliminary study of resolved Zeeman pattern allowed the determination of the Hs strength and its mean inclination on the line of sight at the time of observation. The comparison of observed and calculated Zeeman broadening functions shows that the Robinson (1980) method is suitable for measuring Hs.
Beckers, J. M.: 1969, Table of Zeeman Multiplets,
Physical sciences research paper,
Gramer, N., and Maeder, A.: 1980, Astron.
Astrophys. Suppl. Sero 41, 111.
Didelon, P.: 1983, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.
Sero 53, 19.
Didelon, P.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.
Sero 55, 69.
Gondoin, Ph., Giampapa, M.S., and Bookbinder,
J.A.: 1985, Ap. J. 297,710.
Gray, D.F.: 1984, Ap.J. 277,640.
Johansson, S.: 1978, Lund preprint, to be
published in Physica Scripta.
Landstreet, J. D.: 1980, A. J. 85, 611.
Marcy, G. W.: 1984, Ap. J. 276, 286.
Moore, C. E.: 1945, A Multiplet Table, NBS
Tech. Note No. 36.
Preston, G.W.: 1971, Ap.J. 164,309.
Preston, G.W.: 1974, Ann. Rev. Astr. Astrophys.
12, 257.
Reader, J. and Corliss, C.H.: 1982, GRG
Handbook of Ghemistry and Physics.
Robinson, R. D.: 1980, Ap. J. 239, 961.
Sun, W.H., Giampapa, M.S. and Worden,
S.P.: 1987, Ap.J. 312,930.
10-11 (PDF)
L. Colina
The clouds which form the extended emission line region of NGC 4388

ADS BibCode:
Colina, L.
AA(Universitaets-Sternwarte, Goettingen, Federal Republic of Germany)
Observations of the NGC 4388 galaxy (which is classified as Seifert 2 galaxy), performed at the Cassegrain focus of the La Silla 2.2-m telescope, are discussed. Long-slit spectroscopy was obtained at position angles 23 and 152 deg, with the O III line emission observed over a total extension of 24 arcsec symmetric to the nucleus. Contrary to the general behavior observed in the O III line profile of Seyfert galaxies, the NGC 4388 galaxy shows a peculiar red asymmetry. The overall O III line 5007-A profile is composed, both at position angles of 23 and 152 deg, of five clearly distinguishable components, separated by up to 600 km/s: the main component C2, which extends over the central region from 3 arcsec NE to 6 arcsec SE; two other major components, C3 and C4, extending over a region of +/- 6 arcsec symmetrically with respect to the nucleus; and two smaller components, C1 and C5, concentrated at the center. It is suggested that these components could be associated with a system of giant clouds confined to the inner six arcsecs from the nucleus.
De Robertis, M. M., Osterbrock, D. E., 1984,
Asuophys. J. 286, 171.
De Robertis, M. M., Osterbrock, D. E., 1986,
Astrophys. J. 301, 727.
di Serego, S., Perryman, M.A.C., Macchetto,
F., 1985, Astron. Astrophys. 149, 179.
Heckman, T. M., Miley, G. K., van Breugel,
W. J. M., Butcher, R. H., 1981, Astrophys.
J. 247, 403.
Heckman, T. M., Miley, G. K., Baliek, B., van
Breugel, W. J. M., Butcher, H. R., 1982, Astrophys.
J. 262, 529.
Hummel, E., van Gorkom, J. H., Kotanyi,
C. G., 1983, Astrophys. J. 267, l5.
Pelat, D., Alloin, D., 1980, Astron. Astrophys.
Pelat, D., Alloin, D. 1982, Astron. Astrophys.
Seyfert, C. K., 1943, Astrophys. J. 97, 28.
Schmidt, M., 1963, Nature 197, 1040.
Wilson, A.S., 1983, in Highlights of Astronomy
Wilson, A. S., Heckman, T. M., 1985, in Astrophysies
of Aetive Galaxies and QuasiStellar
Objeets, p. 39, ed. J. S. Miller. University
Seience Books.
11-11 (PDF)
ESO Slide Sets

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12-14 (PDF)
J.-L. Prieur
Observations of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 with EFOSC

ADS BibCode:
Prieur, J.-L.
AA(Pic-du-Midi et Toulouse, Observatoires, Toulouse, France)
The results of the observations of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 with a 3.6-m telescope equipped with the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera system are described. Five photographs were taken with the same orientation, moving the telescope slightly between each exposure. To obtain the picture of shells around NGC 3923, which are faint and cannot be distinguished from the bright background of the galaxy, the luminosity profile of NGC 3923 was computed and used to construct a model for the galaxy; when this background was subtracted, shells appeared clearly. Accurate positions of shells and the measurements of physical parameters were compared to existing theoretical models and numerical simulations, indicating that models published until now do not fully account for the properties that were observed.
Dekker, H., O'Odorico, S., 1985, ESO
Operating Manual No. 4.
Dupraz, C., Combes, F., 1985, in "New Aspects
of Galaxy Photometry". Ed. J.-L.
Nieto, Leetures Notes Phys. (Springer
Heidelberg Berlin).
Dupraz, C., Combes, F., 1986, A & A 166, 53.
Dupraz, C., Combes, F., Gerhard, O. E., 1987,
A & A preprint.
Dupraz, C. Combes, F., Prieur, J.-L., 1986,
"Structure and Oynamics of Elliptical
Galaxies", lAU Symp. no. 127, Ed. T. Oe
Zeeuw (Dortrecht Reidel), in press.
Fort, B., Carter, D., Prieur, J.-L., Meatheringham,
S.J., Vigroux, L., 1986, Ap. J. 306,
Habe, A., Ikeuchi, S., 1985, Ap. J 289, 540.
Hernquist, L., Quinn, P.J., 1987a, Ap. J
312, 1.
Hernquist, L., Quinn, P.J., 1987b, preprint.
Malin, D. F., 1977, A.A. S. Photo-Bulletin
Malin, D. F., Carter, D., 1983, Ap. J. 274, 534.
Prieur, J.-L., 1987, Ap. J submitted.
Quinn, P.J., 1984, Ap. J. 279, 596.
Tohline, J. E., Durisen, R. H., 1982, Ap. J
Wilkinson, A., Carter, D., Malin, D. F., Prieur,
J.-L., Sparks, B., 1988, in preparation.
Williams, R.E., and Christiansen, W.A., 1985,
Ap. J, 291, 80.
14-15 (PDF)
Visiting Astronomers

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15-18 (PDF)
B. Jarvis
IC 3370 - A box-shaped elliptical or SO galaxy?

ADS BibCode:
Jarvis, B.
AA(Geneve, Observatoire, Sauverny, Switzerland)
This paper reports the results of photometric and kinematic observations on IC 3370 galaxy, which has been classified in the literature as an elliptical with box-like characteristics. The Johnson B, V, and R surface photometry of IC 3370 was oabtained with an RCA CCD aligned E-W at the f/13 Cassegrain focus of the 0.9-m telescope at CTIO. The luminosity of IC 3370, with the absolute B magnitude estimated as M(B) = -22.3, is typical of an elliptical galaxy. The IC 3370 galaxy also shows a significant amount of isophotal twisting amounting to a total rotation of about 25 deg between r = 0 and 70 arcsec. The kinematic spectroscopic data, obtained with Boller and Chivens spectrograph and CCD at the 3.6-m telescope at ESO, showed that IC 3370 is strongly cylindrically rotating to large z distances above and below the plane of rotation. In addition, a faint luminous stellar disk was observed in the galaxy. The results suggest that IC 3370 is an SOpec galaxy and not an elliptical, as was previously classified.
Binney, J., and Petrou, M. (1985). Mon. Not.
R.Asifon. SOG. 214,449.
Faber, S. M., Balick, B., Gallagher, J. S., and
Knapp, G. R. (1977). Astrophys. J. 214,
Jarvis, B.J. (1986). Astron. J. 91,65.
Jarvis, B.J., and Freeman, K.C. (1985). Asuophys.
J. 295, 314.
Kormendy, J., and Illingworth, G. (1982), Astrophys.
J. 256, 460 (KI).
May, A., van Albada, T.S., and Norman, C.A.
(1985). Mon. Not. R. Astron. SOG. 214, 131.
18-19 (PDF)
D. Alloin, D. Hofstadt
Upgrading of the ESO 1.52-m telescope

ADS BibCode:
Alloin, D.; Hofstadt, D.
AA(Paris, Observatoire, France), AB(European Southern Observatory, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany)
The instrumentation of the ESO 1.52-m telescope consists of the coudespectrograph, a Boller and Chivens spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus, and an echelle spectrograph. This paper discusses the upgrading of this telescope planned for the near feature. The following features are considered for installation at the telescope: (1) new servomotor drives at both axes; (2) a high resolution encoder with an absolute position read-out feature; (3) an automatic guiding system for Cassegrain observing and, possibly, coude; and (4) a cabling twist system, to be incorporated after the telescope and instrumentation cabling will be renewed. Finally, a new control room will be installed at the floor below the telescope. The optics of the Boller and Chivens spectrograph will be improved in order to overcome the geometrical aberrations. It is also planned to reactivate the echelle spectrograph with a CCD detector.
20-24 (PDF)
E. Giraud
A new distance indicator for spiral galaxies?

ADS BibCode:
Giraud, E.
With an observed dispersion of 0.45-0.55 mag, the Tully-Fisher (T-F) relation between the maximum rotation velocity Vm, deduced from HI profiles at 21 cm, and the luminosity of spiral galaxies is a good method for determining relative distances of clusters of galaxies. However, the scatter in the relation is larger than can be accounted for by observational errors only. In particular the B-band T-F relation is probably not single-valued (i. e. an Sb with a maximum rotation velocity equal to that of an Sc is fainter in the blue than the Sc). It is generally thought that the use of infrared magnitudes (H band at 1.6 um) tends to reduce the scatter. But a major disadvantage at H is the absence of a system of diameters (H magnitudes are measured within a standard aperture ratio, fixed at - 31 % of the isophotal blue diameter at 25 mag arcsec^-2
Rubin et al., 1985, Astrophys. J., 289, 81.
24-25 (PDF)
K. Metz, D. Kunze et al.
A new device for performing high-speed polarimetric measurements.

ADS BibCode:
Metz, K.; Kunze, D.; Roth, M.; Hofstadt, D.
AA(Universitäts-Sternwarte München, F. R. Germany) AB(Universitäts-Sternwarte München, F. R. Germany) AC(Universitäts-Sternwarte München, F. R. Germany) AD(ESO)
The explosion of the supernova SN 1987A in the LMC on February 23, 1987, was such an exceptional event for the present generation of astronomers that all possible efforts are justified that could allow a deeper insight into the somewhat spectacular results obtained for the supernova. It is not our purpose to review here the descussions that were triggered by the observation of two different neutrino showers that raised the question as to whether the precursor of SN 1987A is now a black hole or a neutron"star. If we assume the latter, it should be possible to carry out linear as weil as circular polarization measurements synchronous with the perhaps fast rotating central star, as soon as the pulsar becomes visible. With respect to the distance modulus of SN 1987A, which is of the order of 18.5, it is evident that we cannot directly observe in the visible domain the polarization of a central object in the supernova. However, it will perhaps be possible to measure the interaction of a strong and quickly varying magnetic field with the shell surrounding the pulsar. To derive a correlation between polarization and magnetic field, it must be possible to measure the polarization synchronously with the rotation of the neutron star. This can be implemented in a simple way also in the relatively slow ESO polarimeter PISCO. The intended modification has to be carried out in such a way that absolutely no interferences with the usual functions of the instrument can occur (Stahl et al., 1986). Therefore the proposed changes mainly have to be shifted onto the software facilities of the instrument. Since it requires much work to prepare the requisite programmes at a computer we have to start our modifications immediately and therefore at a time we are by no means certain about the usefulness of our efforts. However, once created, the intended modification can also be used for measuring fast varying objects like polars of DQ Her type.
Metz, K.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 136, 175.
Metz, K.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 159, 333.
Stahl, 0., Buzzoni, 8., Kraus, G., Schwarz,
H., Metz, K., Roth, M.: 1986, The
Messenger 46, 23.
24-24 (PDF)
La Silla Slide Set

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25-25 (PDF)
Sun Rings Over La Silla

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25-25 (PDF)
SN 1987 A (Continued)

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25-25 (PDF)
ESO Press Releases

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26-29 (PDF)
A. F. J. Moffat, W. Seggewiss
Phase dependent polarization variations of southern Galactic WR + O systems

ADS BibCode:
Moffat, A. F. J.; Seggewiss, W.
AA(Montreal, Universite, Canada), AB(Universitaets-Sternwarte, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany)
The ESO polarimeter on the 2.2-m Max-Planck telescope was used during six nights in early May 1987 to observe phase-dependent polarization variations of six southern Galactic WR + O binaries. The polarization variation was monitored in the visual broad band. Linear polarization (P) was observed with a rotating half-wave plate as variable retarder and a Foster prism as an analyzer. The six WR + O systems were found to range in brigthness from V = 9 to 11 mag. For two systems, HDE 311884 and HD 90657, plots of P and phase theta versus the spectroscopic orbital phase, and of the Stokes parameters Q (Q = P cos 2 theta) versus U (U = P sin 2 theta) are presented. From the shape of the Q-U figures traced out during the orbit, the masses of the WR for the two systems were deduced to be equal 9 solar masses for the HD 90657 and 43 solar masses for the HDE 311884. These masses support previous suggestions that the hotter WN stars tend to be less massive on the average than the cooler ones.
Brown, J.C., McLean, I.S. and Emslie, AG.:
1978, Astron. Astrophys. 68, 415.
Conti, P. S. and Walborn, N. R.: 1976, Astrophys.
J. 207, 502.
Drissen, L., Moffat, AF.J., Bastien, P.,
Lamontagne, R. and Tapia, S.: 1986, Astrophys.
J. 306, 215.
Drissen, L., St-Louis, N., Moffat, A. F. J. and
Bastien, P.: 1987, Astrophys. J. (in press).
Luna, H.C.: 1982, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific
Luna, H.C.: 1985, Revista Mexicana Astron.
Astrofis. 10, 267.
Niemela, V.S.: 1987, priv. comm.
Niemela, V.S.: Conti, P.S. and Massey, P.:
1980, Astrophys. J. 241, 1050.
Niemela, V.S. and Moffat, A.F.J.: 1982, Astrophys.
J. 259, 213.
Robert, C., Moffat, A. F.J., Bastien, P., StLouis,
N. and Drissen, L.: 1987 (in prep.).
Rudy, R.J. and Kemp, J.C.: 1978, Astrophys.
J. 221, 200.
Stahl, 0., Buzzoni, B., Kraus, G., Schwarz,
H., Metz, K. and Roth, M.: 1986, The
Messenger 46, 23.
St-Louis, N., Drissen, L., Moffat, AF.J., Bastien,
P. and Tapia, S.: 1987 a, Astrophys. J.
(in press).
St-Louis, N., Moffat, A F. J., Drissen, L., Bastien,
P. and Robert, C.: 1987b (in prep.).
29-32 (PDF)
C. Waelkens, H. Lamers et al.
HR 4049 - an old low-mass star disguised as a young massive supergiant

ADS BibCode:
Waelkens, C.; Lamers, H.; Waters, R.
AA(Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit, Louvain, Belgium), AB(SRON, Laboratorium voor Ruimteonderzoek, Utrecht, Netherlands), AC(SRON, Laboratorium voor Ruimteonderzoek, Utrecht, Netherlands)
The spectroscopic features and the possible nature of the HR 4049, the fifth-magnitude star classified as B9.5-Ib II, are examined. Coudespectra in the 3622-3900 A range, obtained at ESO's 1.52-m telescope, did display Balmer lines (from H9 to the Balmer limit), on the appearance of which the classification as a B9.5 Ib II was based, but no trace of Mg II, Fe II, or Cr II lines, i.e., lines that tend to be prominent in early-A supergiants. The difference between HR 4049 and normal early supergiants was still more prominent in the UV, with no features in common with spectra of typical late-B or early-A-supergiants seen in the HR 4049. It is concluded that, unlike normal supergiants, the HR 4049 is not a massive star. The possible nature of the HR 4049 as a post-asymptotic giant branch star is discussed.
Morgan, W.W.: 1984, in "The MK Classification
Process", Toronto, p. 18.
Schoenberner, D.: 1981, Astron. Astrophys.
Waelkens, C., Waters, L. B. F. M., Cassatella,
A., Le Bertre, T., Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.:
1987, Astron. Astrophys., in press.
32-33 (PDF)
S. van den Bergh
Supernova 1987A. A summary of the ESO Workshop held from 6 - 8 July 1987.

ADS BibCode:
van den Bergh, S.
AA(Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute ofAstrophysics,Victoria, Canada)
This has been a really exeiting meeting! Not only have we heard many new results, but it has also provided a fine example of how seienee should be done. In particular we had vigorous interplay between theory and observation, contributions from a variety of wavelength regions and intense international collaboration.
34-35 (PDF)
H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico
Updating and New Functions of EFOSC

ADS BibCode:
Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.
This last August three new features have been tested in EFOSC and are now fully implemented in the instrument. This brief report is intended to make users promptly aware of the new possibilities.
1. F. Vilas and B.A. Smith, 1987, Applied
Optics 26, 664.
2. F. Paresce and C. Burrows, 1987, The
Messenger 47,43.
3. H. Dekker and S. D'Odorico, 1986, The
Messenger 46, 21.
34-34 (PDF)
S. D'Odorico
The Gaseous Environment of the Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

ADS BibCode:
D'Odorico, S.
A visual inspection of a deep photograph of the region centred on 30 Doradus obtained in the light of the gaseous emission of ionized hydrogen (e. g. the Ha pictures by Elliott et al. 1977, Astron. Astrophys. 55, 187 and the multicolour photograph published in the Messenger No. 48) clearly suggests that the supernova occurred within the boundaries of that supergiant H11 region. This is hardly surprising: the 30 Dor complex is the largest concentration of young, massive stars in the Local Group of galaxies and as massive stars are the progenitors of type II supernovae there was a high chance to observe the first close-by supernova in modern times in that region.
35-36 (PDF)
G. Raffi
Remote Control from Garching

ADS BibCode:
Raffi, G.
As an alternative to travelling to La Silla, remote control from ESO Garching has been offered to astronomers with observing time at the 2.2-m telescope since 1st July 1987. The instruments available are a Boiler & Chivens spectrograph with a CCO detector and the CCO used directly with the 2.2-m adapter.
37-37 (PDF)
M. Tarenghi
NTT Progress

ADS BibCode:
Tarenghi, M.
Since the last issue of the Messenger, the mechanical pre-assembly of the ND at INNSE Brescia (Italy) has been completed and the electronic hardware and software integration has started.
37-39 (PDF)
M. Sarazin
Site evaluation for the VLT: a status report.

ADS BibCode:
Sarazin, M.
The instrumentation for the VLT site seeing evaluation programme has been progressively installed at La Silla and tested there during the course of 1986. Part of it was calibrated during the Lassca campaign against various optical measurements made on the La Silla telescopes (The Messenger No. 44).
39-41 (PDF)
G. Schilling
Five nights on a bare mountain - an outsider's look at La Silla.

ADS BibCode:
Schilling, G.
AA(Utrecht, the Netherlands)
The person in front of me is nearly unrecognizable. In the first place, it is very dark around us. Secondly, he is completely wrapped up in a fur jacket, with a cap around his head. The air temperature is just below zero, but that isn't the worst. It's the icy northern wind that blows literally through everything, and that's chilling you to the bone. The person's hands are uncovered, because he has to write, push buttons, turn dials, etc. His fingers must be frozen to death. He has already been working for about six hours, and after a short break for a sandwich and a cup of coffee, he has another six hours to go. This goes on for several nights, all of them cold and windy. No labour union would tolerate such severe working conditions. Nevertheless, this person doesn't complain. He loves his work. He is an astronomer. We are not at the South Pole, but at La Silla, the site of the European Southern Observatory.
39-39 (PDF)
ESO Image Processing Group: MIDAS Memo

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41-41 (PDF)
Staff Movements

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42-43 (PDF)
P. Kunitzsch
A medieval reference to the Andromeda Nebula.

ADS BibCode:
Kunitzsch, P.
AA(Institute of Semitic Studies, University of Munich, F. R. Germany)
Nebulous objects among the fixed stars, in the southern as well as in the northern hemisphere, have been observed and registered since antiquity. They are mentioned in both parts of the ancient knowledge of the sky, the theoretical (that is what we nowadays would call "astronomy"), and the applied, or practical (that is what we nowadays call "astrology").
1. For the Almagest, see P. Kunitzsch, Der
Almagest. Die Syntaxis Mathematica des
Claudius Ptolemäus in arabischlateinischer
Ueberlieferung (Wiesbaden,
1974); Claudius Ptolemaeus, Der Sternkatalog
des Almagest. Die arabisch-mittelalterliche
Tradition, i: Die arabischen
Uebersetzungen, Herausgeg., ins
Deutsche uebertragen u. bearb. v. P.
Kunitzsch (Wiesbaden, 1986). A recent
English translation (from the original
Greek) is: Ptolemy's Almagest, Translated
and Annotated by G.J. Toomer (London,
2. Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, ed. and transl. F. E.
Robbins (The Loeb Classical Library, repr.
Cambridge, Mass.lLondon, 1971),
3. See P. Kunitzsch, apud W. Huebner, Die
Eigenschaften der Tierkreiszeichen in der
Antike (Sudhoffs Archiv, Beiheft 22; Wiesbaden,
1982), p. 358f.
4. P. Kunitzsch, article "al-Sufi", in: Dictionary
of Scientific Biography, vol. xiii (New
York, 1976); idem, "The astronomer Abu
I-Husayn al-Sufi and his Book on the Constellations"
, Zeitschr. f. Geschichte d.
Arab.-Islam. Wissenschaften 3 (1986),
5. See P. Kunitzsch, Untersuchungen zur
Sternnomenklatur der Araber (Wiesbaden,
1961), no. 126a.
6. H. C. F. C. Schjellerup, Description des
etoiles fixes... par Abd-al-Rahman alSufi
(St.-petersbourg, 1874; repr. Frankfurt/
M., 1986), p. 118-119.
43-44 (PDF)
Algunos Resumenes

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43-43 (PDF)
ESO Pictorial Atlas Now Available

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